Functionals Groups

Groups containing oxygen


        Aldehyde synthesis

- via cyanide 

- via hydroxyl (Swern oxidation)

- via alkene

Carboxylic acid synthesis

- via ester 

Cyanide synthesis

- via bromide group

- via tosyl group

Epoxide synthesis - via alkene 
Ester synthesis

- via carboxylic acid

- via hydroxyl (Mitsunobu reaction)                          

Ether synthesis

- via hydrolyl

Hydroxyl synthesis

- via ester

- via ketone

Ketone synthesis

- via dihydroxyl compound

- via carboxylic acid 

- via hydroxyl (Dess-Martin periodinane)

Mesyl synthesis - via hydrolyl 
Methoxy synthesis - via hydrolyl
Tosyl synthesis

- via hydrolyl

 

Groups containing nitrogen         

 

Amide synthesis

- carboxylic acid versus amine 

Amine synthesis (Primary) 

- via azido group (Staudinger reaction)

- via nitro group

- via phthalimide group (Gabriel synthesis)

Amine synthesis (Secondary)

- aldehyde versus primary amine (reductive amination) 

Azido synthesis - via mesyl group  
Sulfonamide synthesis
- sulfonyl chloride versus secondary amine

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